Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity and updating of iarc monographs dating couples one wants a dog the other doesnt
Chemical contamination is defined as the unintended exposure of a healthcare professional to hazardous drugs.
The American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines a hazardous drug as any drug identified by at least one of the following criteria: carcinogenicity, teratogenicity or developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity in humans, organ toxicity at low doses in humans or animals, genotoxicity, or new drugs that mimic existing hazardous drugs in structure or toxicity.(1) US Bureau of Labor Statistics.
May 2006 National and Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates.
Washington DC: United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2007. (2004) Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings. Occupational exposures among nurses and risk of spontaneous abortion. The presence of contamination in these areas suggests that preparing cytostatics as well as handling vials, boxes and bodily fluids is a cause of contamination.
Our review covered Volumes 1-83 of the IARC Monographs. Siemiatycki J, Richardson L, Straif K, Latreille B, Lakhani R, Campbell S, et al. Occupation or industry in which Substance or mixture the substance is found (a) Cobalt metal with Production of cemented carbides tungsten carbide (hard-metal industry), tool grinders; saw filers; diamond polishers Cobalt metal without Miners; production of alloys; tungsten carbide processing of copper and nickel ore; glass and ceramic production; welders of cobalt- containing alloys Cobalt sulfate and other Electroplating and ceramic soluble cobalt(II) industries salts Gallium arsenide Production; microelectronics industry (integrated circuits and optoelectronic devices) Indium phosphide Production, microelectronics industry (integrated circuits and optoelectronic devices) Vanadium pentoxide Ore refining and processing; chemical manufacturing industry; maintenance of oil-fired boilers and furnaces Inorganic lead Lead smelters, plumbers, compounds solderers; occupations in battery recycling smelters, production of lead-acid batteries; printing press occupations, pigment production; construction and demolition Formaldehyde Production, pathologists; medical laboratory technicians; plastics; textile and plywood industry IARC IARC Substance or mixture Site(s) classification Monograph Cobalt metal with Lung (b) 2A 86 tungsten carbide Cobalt metal without Uncertain 2B 86 tungsten carbide Cobalt sulfate and other Uncertain 2B 86 soluble cobalt(II) salts Gallium arsenide Uncertain 1 (c) 86 Indium phosphide Uncertain 2A (d) 86 Vanadium pentoxide Uncertain 2B 86 Inorganic lead Lung (b) 2A 87 compounds Stomach (b) Formaldehyde Nasopharynx (e) 1 88 Leukemia (b) Nasal sinuses (b) (a) Not necessarily an exhaustive list of occupations/industries in which this agent is found; not all workers in these occupations/industries are exposed.
Previously, lead and inorganic lead compounds were classified in Group 2B, whereas organic lead compounds were classified in Group 3. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42.
The most recent IARC evaluation results in an upgrading of inorganic lead compounds to Group 2A; organic lead compounds remain in Group 3 (IARC, in press b).
The Working Group, however, noted that part of the organic lead is metabolized into ionic lead, which would be expected to present the same toxicity as inorganic lead.
In Volume 88, formaldehyde was upgraded from a Group 2A (probable) to a Group 1 human carcinogen (IARC, in press c; Cogliano et al. The other two substances covered by this monograph, 2-butoxyethanol and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol, are evaluated as Group 3 (not classifiable).