Updating estimates of the economic costs of alcohol abuse
Stabilize the patient After initial assessment, vital signs (eg, heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature) should be stabilized while fluid, electrolyte, and nutritional disturbances are corrected. Alcohol and other drugs–toward a more rational and consistent policy.
Unstable mood disorders—delirium, psychosis, severe depression, suicidal or homicidal ideation—while potentially difficult to assess during intoxication, need to be considered and ruled out. Report prepared by The Lewin Group for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2000. Bethesda, Md: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Division of Biometry and Epidemiology, 2002.
Divalproex sodium in alcohol withdrawal: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Double-blind controlled trial comparing carbamazepine to oxazepam treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
chlordiazepoxide in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
Is clonidine useful in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal?
A meta-analysis and evidence-based practice guideline. American Society of Addiction Medicine Working Group on Pharmacological Management of Alcohol Withdrawal. Diagnosis and management of acute alcohol withdrawal. Development of optimal tactics for alcohol withdrawal.
Holbrook AM, Crowther R, Lotter A, Cheng C, King D. Shaw JM, Kolesar GS, Sellers EM, Kaplan HL, Sandor P.